Parasitic diseases or the defeat of the human body by parasites, pathogenic fungi and bacteria, are the second most common after respiratory infections. The main danger is that people do not always know that they have such a lesion, and the signs characteristic of the disease may not appear for months, while parasites cause irreparable damage to health. For a long time, symptoms of parasites in the body will be disguised as fatigue and minor pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
Helminthiasis is not only a disease of "dirty hands". Eating poorly washed fruits, raw fish (sushi), and insufficiently fried meat can cause the appearance of worms and other protozoa. Helminth eggs can be passed from an infected person to a healthy person through tactile contact.
WHO statistics are scary - about ¾ of the entire population of the planet are infected with various parasites. The incidence rate in adults and children with pets is 99. 9%.
It is possible to get rid of worms with the help of medications and folk remedies, but there are severe cases when only surgical intervention will help get rid of pests.
What human organs can be infected by parasites
There are 3 ways of penetration of worms and helminths into the human body - through the mouth, mucous membranes and skin. Against the background of a weakening of the immune system, parasites multiply unhindered in the body. Immunity is depleted even more, secondary immunodeficiency develops, general allergization of the body manifests itself, and resistance to various kinds of infections decreases. Acute pathologies develop into chronic ones, take a severe course.
The favorite habitat of parasites is all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Of the 300 varieties of parasitic diseases, 70% are intestinal forms. Extraintestinal types of helminthiasis affect:
- skin and subcutaneous fatty tissue;
- muscle tissue;
- heart tissue;
- joint capsules.
The moment of appearance of the first symptoms of a lesion depends on the type of parasites, the number, location of their localization, as well as on the current state of human health.
The primary symptoms of parasites in the body are similar for all types of helminthic infestations:
- appetite disappears;
- salivation increases;
- diarrhea alternating with constipation;
- attacks of nausea and vomiting;
- sleep disturbance.
Teeth grinding during sleep may indicate the existence of worms in a child's body.
The main signs of helminthiasis are general malaise, increased irritability, light dizziness, weight loss, and the development of iron deficiency anemia. In the occurrence of allergic reactions (in 70% of cases), it is parasitic lesions that are not paid attention to and are not treated in a timely manner.
The main types of parasites and the distinguishing symptoms of their presence
Currently, 70 types of parasites have been identified that can live inside humans. They are divided into the following subgroups:
- round worms (worms);
- tapeworms (tapeworms);
- subcutaneous helminths;
- flukes (flukes);
- tissue parasites;
- protozoan protozoa.
Symptoms caused by different types of parasites may differ. To understand whether the human body is affected or not, we will consider several of the most typical cases.
Enterobius vermicularis or pinworms are roundworms. They feed on blood and intestinal contents. These 0. 5-1 centimeter white worms cause widespread helminthiasis - enterobiasis. According to statistics, the total share of this disease of all lesions is 65%, of which 90% are children.
Enterobiasis is contagious and spreads from person to person. The main route of entry of parasites into the body is by swallowing eggs. The life cycle is 4 weeks - during this time, males and females develop from the eggs, which exit through the anus and lay eggs on the skin around it and in the perineum. Moving and laying eggs causes a sharp burning sensation of the skin.
Pinworms are very difficult to treat, as eggs do not only get on the skin. The eggs of the parasites get on bed linen, shake them off to the floor, and contaminate household items and toys.
It is difficult to determine the presence of these parasites in the body, but the signs and symptoms of their presence have their own distinctive features:
- frequent urge to urinate, bedwetting;
- bloating and pain in the lower abdomen, often on the right side;
- loss of appetite;
- general muscle weakness;
- female pinworms and clutches of eggs are visually found in the folds of the anus.
With a small number of colony, diagnostics based on analyzes may be false-negative. In order to identify parasites, a threefold analysis of feces and scrapings are carried out, which is repeated after a few days. In rare cases, the doctor may prescribe a blood test with an expanded leukocyte count.
Toxocars - symptoms and treatment of varieties of toxocariasis
Refers to a subgroup of nematodes that enter the body after contact with dogs, cats or soil. Toxocars are not transmitted from person to person, but can be transmitted by the mother to the fetus in utero, or get to the child with milk when breastfeeding. Parasite infestation of this species often occurs in autumn or spring.
Symptoms of toxocariasis depend on the location of the individuals.
This type of lesion is detected when parasites settle in internal organs: in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, brain or heart of a person. In the vast majority of cases, toxocars settle in the patient's lungs. The following clinical picture is often observed:
- fever, chills, fever;
- the liver is thickened, the spleen is enlarged;
- lymph nodes increase slightly, are painful on palpation and are detached from the surrounding tissues;
- dry cough with moist wheezing, mainly at night;
- difficulty breathing and shortness of breath;
- too frequent bronchitis and bronchopneumonia.
Lack of therapy for helminthiasis of this form can be fatal. Parasites in the heart can lead to death.
Pathology occurs when parasites enter the central nervous system. Symptoms of the presence of parasites in the human body:
- children become hyperactive, fail to pass neuropsychological tests, and are lagging behind in development;
- adults complain that it is difficult for them to read and cannot explain why;
- memory degrades;
- all kinds of neurological disorders are manifested.
If tosokars remain in the brain, convulsions and epileptiform seizures, paresis and paralysis of the limbs are possible.
Symptoms will appear as localized urticaria, eczema, or papular eruptions that appear as the toxocar larvae migrate. Patients complain of unbearable itching, and the affected areas, in addition to rashes and blisters, become very swollen and redden. Laxity of the skin appears around the areas.
A lesion in which the parasite larvae colonize the eyeball. Their migration is clearly visible even with the naked eye. Only one eye is affected. In most cases, only one parasite is present. However, there are other signs of the presence of parasites:
- inflammation of the choroid;
- purulent inflammation of the vitreous tissues;
- children develop strabismus;
- In the exudate of the eyeball there may be formations in the form of "snowballs".
The main diagnostic technique for any form of toxocariasis is anamnesis, immunological tests and a detailed blood test. Stool testing is not done because these parasites do not live in the intestines. With adequate medication, the prognosis for recovery is favorable.
This parasite enters the human body through the consumption of raw fish or caviar. The disease is called diphyllobothriasis and is not spread from person to person.
Wide tapeworm can only exist in the small intestine. There are specific symptoms of its presence, which develop in the following order:
- nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting;
- febrile conditions;
- decreased or increased appetite;
- constipation alternating with diarrhea;
- gradual increase in symptoms of B12-deficiency anemia;
- intestinal obstruction caused by blockage of the intestinal lumen by an overgrown helminth, as well as a violation of superficial and deep sensitivity;
- unsteady gait and crawling under the skin;
- Parasite particles may be present in stool.
Diagnosis of the presence of parasites is carried out according to the results of blood tests and coproovoscopy.
This tapeworm can grow up to 7-10 meters in length. The parasite enters the human body in the form of larvae or eggs contained in poorly cooked or raw infected cattle meat. The disease is called teniarinchiasis, adults are more susceptible to it.
Signs of parasites in the human body with teniarinchiasis appear sequentially:
- there is a persistent feeling of constant hunger, false bulimia;
- there is a decrease in appetite, sometimes to a complete absence;
- pains in the abdomen, which can be of different localization, are increasing, the iliac region on the right hurts more;
- persistent severe flatulence and recurrent diarrhea;
- tongue inflammation develops;
- weakened people may have sleep disturbances, fainting, and seizures.
It is quite easy to identify and check the defeat of the bovine tapeworm, its individual segments - proglottids, crawl out of the anus without defecation, especially often at night.
The simplest and most effective diagnostic method is scraping and analysis of feces for the content of proglottid eggs. The prognosis of treatment is favorable.
Echinococcus belongs to the class of tapeworms. The main source is stray dogs, wolves, jackals, foxes, which feed on carrion infected with echinococcus. It is possible to become infected with parasites from a domestic dog if it has come into contact with stray relatives or the feces of infected animals.
Human infection occurs when the larvae of parasites are swallowed, most often with contaminated water. A variant is possible when the eggs are inhaled with a gust of wind and stick to the mucous membranes of the nose or throat, and when expectoration is swallowed and enter the digestive tract.
The larva of the parasite, which has entered the intestine, bores itself into the bloodstream and with the flow of venous blood reaches the liver, where it is fixed. If fixation does not occur, echinococcus can affect the lungs or other organs. Contrary to popular belief, these parasites do not live in human muscles.
Catching onto organ tissue, the larva begins to grow and forms a cyst. In case of her death, cyst suppuration occurs. When a person is infected with a large number of larvae, numerous live and dead echinococcal cysts are formed.
Symptoms of the presence of this type of parasite do not appear for a long time, but as the cyst grows in the liver, the following symptoms appear:
- violation of the stool, frequent vomiting, pain in the solar plexus;
- nodules are felt in the liver;
- in case of compression of the cysts, jaundice develops, accompanied by characteristic symptoms, to which very severe itching is attached;
- when a purulent cyst is opened, severe pain, allergic reactions, up to anaphylactic shock occur.
If the parasite is attached to the lungs, shortness of breath develops, weakening of breathing, pain in the chest worries, and a cough with bleeding occurs. A breakthrough of a cyst into the pleural area is fatal. When a breakthrough into the bronchi develops, suffocation, blue skin and severe allergic reactions develop.
Diagnosis is clarified by serological blood test and confirmation by ultrasound. Echinococcosis can only be treated surgically! Specific antiparasitic drug treatment is carried out only in case of massive infection. Drinking alcohol or taking other folk remedies for these parasites is useless.
It is quite easy to become a carrier of these parasites - human infection occurs with cysts from cats, dogs and rodents. Once in the body, parasites are localized not only in the liver, but also in the large and small intestines. Giardiasis affects children and adults with weakened immunity and low acidity of the stomach.
The disease is characterized by an undulating course with progressive neurological and allergic symptoms:
- cramping pain in the right side, especially after eating fatty foods;
- diarrhea alternating with constipation;
- dry and bitter mouth;
- at a normal level of hemoglobin in the blood, there is a pallor of the skin, especially the nose "whitens";
- hair falls out;
- lip cracks and bumps appear;
- the skin on the palms and feet peels off, rashes appear on the skin;
- there are bouts of suffocating cough;
- enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes;
- develops severe apathy and general weakness.
Feces and duodenal contents are examined to clarify the diagnosis.
When detecting signs of parasites, you should not self-medicate, you need to contact an infectious disease specialist. Only a doctor will be able to accurately diagnose and prescribe an adequate complex treatment.