It is difficult for an ordinary person to even imagine how many parasites can threaten his health. These "settlers" can live for years in the human body, literally sucking life out of it and poisoning it with their poison.
Types of parasites
From the point of view of medicine, parasites include unicellular and protozoa. Depending on their habitat, they are divided into exoparasites (lice, bugs, and others) and endoparasites.
Endoparasites have their own subspecies:
- Larvae laid by insects.
- Protozoa (amoeba, lamblia).
- Helminths (worms or worms).
Each parasite has its own path of penetration into the human body. The most common way is alimentary, that is, with the help of water or food. Many insects can carry parasite larvae, contaminating the environment. By consuming raw water, unwashed and not thoroughly cooked foods, a person becomes infected with parasites.
Some species are transmitted directly by person-to-person contact - this path is called contact-household. For infection, it is not necessary to have direct contact with the distributor, it is enough to use household items. This is how enterobiasis and some other parasitic forms are transmitted.
An equally popular vector-borne infection route. In this case, the parasites are carried by blood-sucking insects. Thus, they can be obtained after being bitten by a mosquito or other insect.
The last way the parasites get in is the percutaneous route, the second name is active. Infection occurs through the penetration of the larvae through the mucous membranes and skin. This occurs due to contact with contaminated soil or water in a body of water.
Parasites in the human body can live for a long time and not manifest themselves. The symptoms, of course, will be, but they are disguised as other diseases. That is why a person for a long time may not be aware that he is infected.
Symptoms most often appear depending on the location of the larvae, but the body can signal infection and other manifestations. The most common are:
- Flatulence, and constant, indicates the presence of worms in the small intestine;
- Diarrhea.Caused by absorption of sodium chloride by parasites;
- Constipation.Tangles of worms can clog some organs;
- Pain in joints and muscles.These pains are caused by the migration of larvae through the human body, to which the immune system reacts in this way;
- Allergy.The parasites themselves are an allergen for the body, and damage to the walls of the stomach contributes to indigestion and the entry of food molecules into the blood;
- The appearance of granulomas.This is a kind of neoplasm arising from the enveloping of cells of the body of the destroyed eggs of parasites;
- Dermatological manifestations;
- Anemia.Often people suffer from anemia precisely because of the activity of parasitic forms;
- Sharp fluctuations in weight;
- Mental disorders.In the process of vital activity, parasites release toxins that negatively affect the host's nervous system. The consequence of poisoning the body can be neurosis, depression, anxiety;
- Bruxism.This is teeth grinding during sleep. This is the response of the nervous system to the appearance of foreign bodies. But this fact is not conclusively proven by science;
- Sleep disorder.As a rule, it occurs due to uncomfortable sensations. An example would be the pinworms of them here, which lay their eggs at night. Leaving the rectum, the pinworm secretes a toxin that causes severe itching;
- Oncological diseases;
- Chronic fatigue.Occurs due to lack of nutrients, which negatively affects the state of the body;
- Diseases of the respiratory tract.A number of parasites can live in the respiratory tract, causing illness. Other parasites provoke colds by moving through the respiratory system;
- Immunity disorders.The absorption of most vitamins by parasites leads to a weakening of the body's barrier functions and a greater likelihood of contracting diseases.
But there are also symptoms characteristic of the presence of parasites in a particular human organ. For example, papillomas, the appearance of bald spots on the head, cracked heels, etc. , may indicate the life of parasites in the liver. In addition, the presence of certain types of parasitic forms can provoke a certain type of disease in humans.
Unfortunately, some doctors negate their duties and do not send a person to special studies to identify parasites in the body. The most common analysis is the delivery of feces for worm eggs. The fact is that parasites can inhabit various organs.
There have been cases when worms were found in the human brain and eyes. Is there a high probability of getting their eggs from the brain into the feces? Most probably not. Even if there are worms in the intestines, the eggs of the parasites may not be found.
First of all, the doctor must perform a visual examination of the patient. Outwardly, one can suspect the presence of human parasites. The easiest way to detect them is to take a blood test aimed at detecting special antibodies to worms.
Description of Human Parasites
There are several dozen types of parasites that inhabit the human body.
Worms or helminths are a kind of worms.Their size depends on the species, for example, female roundworms reach 40 centimeters. Some species can exceed 10 meters in length. A favorite habitat for worms is the intestines, but they are often found in other organs, even the brain.
For example, roundworm larvae circulate through the body, collecting nutrients, and return to the intestines, where they grow and reproduce. They often live in the respiratory organs. The presence of ascaris in the human body is accompanied by a disorder of the work of internal organs, intoxication of the body, allergic manifestations and even an increase in temperature.
Among the tapeworms is the pork tapeworm, which migrates to the brain through the blood.This parasite enters the body through poorly processed meat products. This worm lives up to 20 years.
Pinworms most often develop in children, but they are quite common in adults. These worms are small in size, reaching 1 centimeter in length. The spread of pinworm eggs occurs in a contact-household way. The female exits the rectum and lays eggs in the outer folds of the anus. The toxin released by the female causes severe itching, which leads to the eggs falling onto the human hands and transferring them to all surrounding objects.
The second name of enterobiasis is the disease of dirty hands. All people who come into contact with the carrier are probably infected. Therefore, when pinworms are found, it is recommended to treat the whole family.
Toxocarais a type of parasite that lives in dogs. They enter the human body and also develop well in it. Unlike these worms in the dog's body, human toxocars do not come out, but they affect many organs and cause certain diseases. You can become infected with toxocars through the soil, since the larvae of these worms come out with the dog's feces. But also the eggs of the parasite can spread from the wet breath of the dog.
Alveococcus and Echinococcusinfects the body in many ways. Their danger lies in the fact that the larvae transform into cysts, which can be found in various internal organs.
Giardia is the simplest.Like pinworms, Giardia is the most common infection in children.They not only reduce the child's immunity, but also provoke a delay in the mental and physical development of children.
This list is far from complete. The main danger of parasites is that no one is immune from infection. Their secrecy leads to the fact that a person feeds parasites for years without suspecting it. Compliance with personal hygiene, constant wet cleaning of housing and compliance with the norms of heat treatment of meat products are not a bad prevention of infection. It will be useful to undergo a doctor's examination and pass the necessary tests every six months, in order to prevent the spread of parasites.